First, it should be noted that the discussion of lightweight concrete and the existence of lightweight concrete has begun in Europe 50 years ago and has benefited from it, but unfortunately in Iran, which is one of the most earthquake-prone countries, it has only been addressed in recent years. The basic principles of lightweight concrete construction are lightweight and earthquake-resistant building integration. Improvement in lightweight construction have highlighted the advantages such as acoustic, heat insulation and resistance to frost and fire.
In the general classification of lightweight blocks, types of lightweight concrete can be divided into two groups:
- Block made by the lightweight aggregate materials such as pumice and ...
- Block made by the method of porosity creation in concrete
Types of Concrete and Lightweight Block Structures:
1- Lightweight aggregate blocks
2- Leca blocks
3. Perlite blocks
4- CLC blocks
5- AAC blocks
6- Concrete foam
General advantages of lightweight blocks
- saving steel in building foundation and structure
- Speed and ease of transport and execution of structures
- Reduction of building fatigue
- Sound, moisture and heat insulation
- increase the useful interior space
- Being light
Lightweight blocks also have features such as cutting and milling an tools like nails, roll plates or reparation makes it easier to get things done during the installation phase. The materials have good color tonality. There is less need to heavy coating. Overall, it can be more flexible when working with user lightweight blocks.
Light weight of the building (dead load) is one of the major parts of the force applied to the load bearing components in a structure Which it’s reduction will reduce these forces, thereby reduce the volume of foundations, and will greatly reduce earthquake damage. The heat transfer rate is very low in these concrete, which includes some advantages, such as the reduction of energy losses. In this way, heat does not go out in winter and it prevents heat transfer to the inside of the building in summer. Compared to normal concrete and lightweight concrete, it can be said that, under the same conditions, a wall of 0.1 m thick concrete will be equivalent to 1 m of normal concrete in terms of heat transfer resistance. These blocks are sound insulation because have lightweight structure and hollow space in their interiors, which is also acoustic.